google7fe7e6420122196f.html Preventive Medicine: 2008

Thursday, December 25, 2008

Mesothelioma in Indonesia

Mesothelioma is one form of lung malignant cancer related with exposure of asbestos. Mesothelium become the place of this malignant cell. The commonest site is pleura, but there are some incidence that mesothelioma occurs in peritoneum, and pericardium. The victims of this disease are mostly workers with exposure of asbestos particles. The family, can be the victim of this disease too. There are reports about the risk of the family member to develop this disease by washing the clothes of the ‘asbestos or fiber’ worker, or by inhaling some dust brought by the worker in their home. There isn’t any association of the disease with smoking. But in some textbook, it’s told that for worker or person who can’t stop their smoking habit, it’s better not to apply or get close with ‘asbestos or fiber’ related work. It may because smoker’s lung which get asbestos exposure has worse prognosis than nonsmoker lung.

The incidence of mesothelioma in Indonesia hasn’t been known for sure. But in some community in Indonesia, this mesothelioma issue has become great discussion. The latest news about this issue came from NAD (Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). It’s told in several Indonesian newspaper that in December 2008, People in NAD burned some houses provided by Yayasan Bakrie Grup through Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) for Deah Raya citizen,  and there’re some Indonesian NGO  reported this case to International Human Right Organization.

The mesothelioma or asbestosis issue become more than health issue for people in the world. It become more political, economic, and law issue. Many organization, worker party, lawyers fight against the asbestos manufacturers. The liability resulting from the sheer number of lawsuits and people affected has reached billions of dollars. The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases. But until today the US Congress has failed to enact significant asbestos reforms.

In Indonesia, many people don’t know about this disease. We still use asbestos materials to build houses. Even in some hospitals. Many doctors diagnose ‘malignant lung cancer’ but only few that diagnose the possible cause of the cancer.  And in this country, autopsy is not a common thing to state the diagnosis or someone’s causes of death. So the number of the mesothelioma victims in Indonesia, is still not well known.

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Sunday, December 21, 2008

Omega 3, dietary resources, health benefits

Omega 3 is a member of unsaturated fatty acid family, beside Omega 6. It contains, some essential substances, such as EPA, ALA, and DHA,  that have lots of beneficial effects on body. Omega 3 has opposite effects with omega 6. Omega-6 fatty acids tend to increase inflammation, blood clotting, and cell proliferation, while those from omega-3 fatty acids decrease those functions. To maintain optimum health, we have to balance both of them in our daily intake.

Some dietary sources of Omega 3:


Especially cold water oily fish such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies and tuna. Oils from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much n−3 as n−6. Indonesian fish contains 0,1-0,5 g Omega 3 /100 g fish meat. Cold weather fish contains more, such as in Japan, the fish has 31,174 g Omega 3 /100 g fish meat Omega 3. Some Indonesian fish that contain high omega 3 are ikan sidat, terubuk, tenggiri, kembung, layang, bawal, seren, slengseng, tuna


Eggs produced by chickens fed a diet of greens and insects produce higher levels of n−3 fatty acids (mostly ALA) than chickens fed corn or soybeans.


Meat from grass fed beef  contains more omega 3 than grain-fed beef,

The omega-3 content of chicken meat may be enhanced by increasing the animals' dietary intake of grains such as flax, chia, and canola.

Other sources

Milk and cheese from grass-fed cows

Krill, which are small, shrimp-like zooplankton And contain fewer heavy metals and PCBs harmful to humans. Wallnuts are one of few nuts that contain appreciable n−3 fat, Acai palm fruit also contains n−3 fatty acids.

Omega 3 is also found in softgels in pharmacies and nowadays it is also found in combination with omega 6, omega 9 and shark liver oil 

Some vegetables, too, contain a noteworthy amount of n-3, including brocolli and strawberries

Health benefits of Omega 3

1.reduce the risk of coronary geart disease

2 Treat people with certain circulatory problems, such as varises

3.reduce blood pressure

4.reduce triglyserid levels

5.reduces the risk of secondary and primary heart attack

6. become therapy for special conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac arrhythmias.

7.Significant improvement in cases of depression and anxiety.

8.Reduce the risk of ischemic and thrombotic stroke

9. anticancer effects of n−3 fatty acids (particularly breast, colon and prostate cancer)

Omega-3 fatty acids reduced prostate tumor growth, slowed histopathological progression, and increased survival

10.reduce ADHD-related symptoms and autism  in some children.

11 reduce the incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight.

Keep attention that very large amounts may actually increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. 3 grams of total EPA/DHA daily are considered safe with no increased risk of bleeding involved. And be careful for the use of Omega 3 in Congestive heart failure patients, which can trigger cardiac death


source: wikipedia

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Thursday, December 18, 2008

Arthritis Prevention

Have you ever diagnosed with arthritis? or Osteoarthritis? Or Rheumathoid Arthritis? If you don't want to experience those disease, you can do several tips from us

Arthritis prevention

1. Understanding the disease:

Arthritis is Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. It occurs in various forms, such as , osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial arthritis. 

In osteoarthritis, the cartilage between two bones begins to wear down, causing stress between the two bones. This stress produces inflammation and occasionally bone spurs. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease where the immune system actually begins attacking the cartilage and synovial linings in the joints between bones.

In both of these forms of arthritis, inflammation is always present, which makes the situation even more painful than before. The main cause of these diseases is oxidative stress

The risk factors:

Six .near the age of 65, your chances of developing osteoarthritis improve exponentially.

Sports, have a job that requires repetitive motion throughout the day, or are engaged in any activity that, over time, consistently uses one or more joints on a regular basis, your chances of developing OA increase. 

Fat. Because of the increased weight strain on joints, obesity have a greater chance of developing osteoarthritis. 

FemaleAfter the age of 65, women have a much higher risk of developing osteoporosis 

Factor Rheumatoid arthritis. If you've been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis - an autoimmune disease as you age, you can also develop osteoarthritis

2. , Modify the risk factors

 After you know somerisk factors, you can modify them to prevent arthritis. Maintaining a healthy weight can prevent you from developing arthritis in your knees. Exercising regularly is also a good means of protecting yourself against the occurrence of arthritis symptoms. Running is fine, if you do some warming up before and cooling down after. Practicing good posture for all the time. Eating right is another great measure of protection. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables, since Vitamin E is very useful for the protection.

3. Natural Food supplements:

There are some natural food supplements, that can prevent you from arthritis:

 Fish oil -. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil are incredible defenses against oxidative stress. Japan has less number of people experiencing arthritis, since they consume more fish than others.

 Biovflavonoids - often found in colorful fruits and veggies, but are important in a nutritional supplement, as well. 

  Vitamin C &Vitamin E - another important antioxidant to help prevent the cause of the disease. 

 Calcium - . You should take supplements of 800 mg to 1500 mg daily, calcium is the most important factor when slowing the progression of osteoporosis and a good level of vitamin D to help absorption. 

 Glucosamine sulfate - Inherently important in cartilage synthesis, glucosamine should be supplemented at levels of 1500-2000 mg per day to help rebuild cartilage and prevent pain. 


Gattuso-one of supergastrocnemius icon of football-and joint?

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Monday, December 15, 2008

Higher and Lower Blood Pressure

Today, i agreed to take my friend's challenge to eat Satay Kambing (kind of Young Grilled Lamb) and Durian fruits altogether in the same time. Why it's called challenge, because for you know, in my country, eating satay, and eating durian are some general habit related to blood pressure increase. And for some people, they believe that they are one of major risk factor of Cerebrovascular accident. So, people said that eating durian and satay altogether will result in fast and straight cerebrovascular accident, or heart attack.
What's actually happened when eating durian and Satay?
It's all about the rising of blood pressure level, that people are affraid of. Is it true?
Yes for satay kambing. It do raise blood pressure level, and prohibited for people with high blood pressure, since it contains high cholesterol, and one of risk factors for developing heart attack, stroke, renal failure.
But, for durian?  there is still no scientific proof published claimed what substances contained in durian that can cause the stroke or heart attack. It is actually not the durian that causes the illnesses, but how many it is being consumed.
Then after 2 hours, we started to eat Starfruits, as many believe that it will lower blood pressure level. Is it true?
Star fruit's kernel texture that a lot of aqueous also fibrous, pretty good to smoothen digestion function and clears intestine from crust fat that tending begets constipation. It contains Vitamin C, that can lower blood pressure.The better choice is 'little type' starfruit that's very sour. It has more vitamin C, and believed to be able to lower blood pressure fast.

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Saturday, December 13, 2008

Is honey dangerous for diabetes patients?

There are many discussions about the use of honey in diabetes mellitus patient. As we know, honey contains fructose, nutritive sugar, (and seems to be able to raise blood glucose level of diabetes patients) that is different with i.e., saccharine, as non nutritive sugar, which often advised for diabetes mellitus patients. Thus, for some years ago, the use of honey is contraindicated for diabetes patients.

But today, many researches show the beneficial effect of honey in diabetes patients.

In some articles, fructose is defined as a substance that doesn’t need insulin to be changed into glycogen. So it can be safely consumed by diabetes patients.

 (1) honey raises only low glycemic level compared with other sugar.  

(2) Other sugar and natural processed honey can raise triglyserid level, but natural unprocessed honey lower triglyserid and raise HDL (good cholesterol).

(3)  25 days natural unprocessed honey consumption can lower total cholesterol and LDL (bad cholesterol), and raise HDL level. (good cholesterol)

On diabetic patients, natural honey can lower total cholesterol, LDL, and CRP. Honey can increase insulin level better than sucrose. (Ali Waili, 2004)

 Honey can lower prostaglandin levels in plasma of normal person. After consuming 250 ml of water containing 1.2 g/kg body weight of natural unprocessed honey, once a day, for 15 days, plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2, PGE2, and PGF2a were decreased by 48%, 63%, and 50%, respectively. (Ali Waili, 2003). In general, prostaglandins are thought of as mediators of inflammation in the body. Both prostaglandins and thromboxanes have been implicated in immune suppression and atherosclerosis

 Pure honey, especially from the wild has multifactor anti-bacterial, haemostatic and nutritious properties, explained Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) Prosthodentics Department Head and Dental Care for Physicians Programme Director Prof. Dr Muhammad Amin.

 Pure honey is used to maintain oral hygiene and various inflammatory problems of the teeth and gums such as gingivitis periodontitis, plaque and caries,

Open ulcers are better healed with honey when applied locally instead of medicated gel, ointments or creams. In one case of Hepatic Cirrhosis, the ulcer of the mouth and tongue were completely healed with honey, while selective therapy did nothing good for the case.

.The antibacterial properties of honey, both the peroxide and non-peroxide, are effective against several strains of bacteria which are notoriously resistant to antibiotics (Heggers 1987). Other topical uses of honey include treatment and healing of eczema and masking of acne (Green 1988). Health benefits of honey use include anti-allergic properties.The anti-oxidant effects of honey (Gheldof et al 2002) would thus make it a useful adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus.

 In conclusion, there are many researches show the beneficial effect of honey in diabetes mellitus patients. Some of the mechanisms are, however, not well understood. It can be concluded that the use of moderate amount of honey isn’t contraindicated in diabetes mellitus persons, and even has some beneficial effects.

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Tuesday, December 9, 2008

Smoke on....

Smoking is one fine way to reach lung cancer. So many methods have been tried to reduce or avoid smoking addiction. The new drugs that have been developed by Pharmacy company are Chantix/ Champix (Varenicline) and Zyban. Chantix works by stimulating the dopamine release, the brain chemical that mediates pleasure. Chantix can reduce irritability and other withdrawal symptoms that people addicted to tobacco feel when they try to quit and make them to light up again. Nicotine replacement products (Zyban,patch, gum, lozenges) all work by prompting the release of low levels of dopamine. It blocks nicotine receptors in the brain that makes smoking less pleasurable.

They Sound promising, but when i try to look at the internet.. i just want to laugh when i read article from person that was failed to continue Champix programme. In 12 weeks Chantix clinical trial, 56% of those who took Chantix were not able to quit smoking. Well, i guess the most principal thing to do is having strong willingness to stop smoking. There are lots of technique, one of them is in this site. Psychological methods probably can do better than medical-chemical intervention. 

tips from me, non-smoker person for smoker addict:


 (Slash-too shy to be an artist-choose to smoke)

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Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Watch out for ANTHRAX....

Last week, I read an article on newspaper about anthrax disease in Boyolali, Central Java. A-4 years old child got various clinical symptoms that appeared to be similar with anthrax disease. For you know, boyolali is one of area in Indonesia that often report anthrax outbreak (last report was on 1990). Most of the people there work as cattle farmer, and Boyolali is famous for its milk producing cows. That article reported that the child had nose and fecal bleeding, high fever, and massive diarrhea. It's like intestinal-anthrax symptoms.In addition, the child had an animal-contact history, since he loves to play along with cows near his house.

Since, next Monday is Idul Adha (one of holidays in Islam),  and lots of people here want to celebrate and consume tons of meat.  I think I’d love to write some facts about this Anthrax disease from the CDC, .

Hope this useful..


Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue from infected animal

Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. B. anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years, and humans can become infected with anthrax by handling products from infected animals or by inhaling anthrax spores from contaminated animal products. Anthrax can also be spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals. It is rare to find infected animals in the United States

Symptoms of disease vary depending on how the disease was contracted, but symptoms usually occur within 7 days.

Cutaneous: Most (about 95%) anthrax infections occur when the bacterial spore enters a cut or abrasion on the skin, such as when handling contaminated wool, hides, leather or hair products (especially goat hair) of infected animals. Skin infection begins as a raised itchy bump that resembles an insect bite but within 1-2 days develops into a vesicle and then a painless ulcer, usually 1-3 cm in diameter, with a characteristic black necrotic (dying) area in the center. Edema or swelling of the surrounding tissues may develop and lymph glands in the adjacent area may swell. About 20% of untreated cases of cutaneous anthrax will result in death. Deaths are rare with appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Inhalation: Initial symptoms may resemble a common cold. After several days, the symptoms may progress to severe breathing problems and shock. Inhalation anthrax is usually fatal, and even with aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy ,45% of inhalation anthrax cases were fatal .

Intestinal: The intestinal disease form of anthrax may follow the consumption of contaminated meat and is characterized by an acute inflammation of the intestinal tract. Initial signs include nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever are followed by abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and severe diarrhea. Symptoms may also include lesions and soreness in the throat, difficulty swallowing, marked swelling of the neck and regional lymph glands. Intestinal anthrax results in death in 25% to 60% of cases.

 Person-to-person transmission is extremely unlikely and has only reported with cutaneous anthrax, where discharges from skin lesions are potentially infectious.  Communicability is not a concern in managing or visiting with patients with inhalation anthrax.

 In countries where anthrax is common and vaccination levels of animal herds are low, humans should avoid contact with livestock and animal products and avoid eating meat that has not been properly slaughtered and cooked. Also, an anthrax vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. The vaccine is reported to be 93% effective in protecting against anthrax.

A common feature of anthrax in animal is that animals in apparently good condition die suddenly without showing overt signs of ill health. Acute cases in cattle, sheep and wild herbivores are characterized by fever, depression, difficulty in breathing and convulsions. Animals may die within two or three days if not treated. It is common to see bloody discharges from natural openings. In few instances, anthrax can manifest itself as a mild disease characterized by general malaise. In pigs, the disease is characterised by swelling of the throat, which may cause difficulties in breathing. In dogs, cats and wild carnivores, the disease resembles that seen in pigs.

Although the chance of getting anthrax through your mail is remote, a simple precaution you can take is to be sure to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after handling your mail.

The anthrax vaccine is manufactured and distributed by BioPort, Corporation, Lansing, Michigan. The vaccine is a cell-free filtrate vaccine, which means it contains no dead or live bacteria in the preparation. The final product contains no more than 2.4 mg of aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. Anthrax vaccines intended for animals should not be used in humans

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended anthrax vaccination for the following groups:

  • Persons who work directly with the organism in the laboratory 
  • Persons who work with imported animal hides or furs in areas where standards are insufficient to prevent exposure to anthrax spores.
  • Persons who handle potentially infected animal products in high-incidence areas. (Incidence is low in the United States, but veterinarians who travel to work in other countries where incidence is higher should consider being vaccinated.) 
  • Military personnel deployed to areas with high risk for exposure to the organism (as when it is used as a biological warfare weapon). 
  • Pregnant women should be vaccinated only if absolutely necessary.

The immunization consists of three subcutaneous injections given 2 weeks apart followed by three additional subcutaneous injections given at 6, 12, and 18 months. Annual booster injections of the vaccine are recommended thereafter.

 Anthrax is diagnosed by culture and isolation of the causative bacterium, B. anthracis; by detecting the bacterial DNA or antigens; or by measuring specific antibodies in the blood of persons with suspected cases.  The bacteria can be cultured from the blood, skin lesions, fluid from the lungs or respiratory secretions, spinal fluid, or other affected tissues prior to the start of antibiotic treatment.   Detection of the DNA or antigens of the bacteria, and detection of antibodies in the blood of suspected cases, are important tools for diagnosis because positive culture is unlikely after antibiotic treatment has been started. 

Doctors can prescribe effective antibiotics. To be effective, treatment should be initiated early. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. Some of antibiotics that can be used to treat this disease are .Some of the different medications in the prevention of Anthrax include:

DisperMoxMoxilinGen-AmoxicillinLin-AmoxPMS- AmoxicillinAcroxil-Amobay-Amoxifur-AmoxilAmoxinovagAmoxisolAmoxivetAmpliron-ArdineFlemoxonGimalxinaGrunicinaHidramoxMoxlinPenamoxPolymoxServamoxSolciclinaXalyn-OrBioThrax



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Tuesday, December 2, 2008

The Magic of Vitamin C on Diabetes

When i browse the internet, i find so many sites that explain about the magic of Vitamin C. Even i found a blog about Vitamin C freak club.. Well, i believe that in years later, the vitamin c will become one of main therapy for some disease, not just for the adjuvant therapy. So now, i try to consume vitamin C in my daily diets. Now, i found an interesting article about diabetes prevention and therapy by the use of Vitamin C.

Higher plasma vitamin C levels linked with lower diabetes risk

In the July 28, 2008 issue of the American Medical Association journal Archives
of Internal Medicine,researchers at Addenbrooke’s Hospital and the University of
Cambridge in England report an association between higher plasma vitamin C
levels in middle-aged adults and a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
The study included 21,831 healthy, nondiabetic participants in the European
Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study, which was created to examine
the association between diet and cancer. Vitamin C levels were measured in
plasma, and food frequency questionnaires were administered upon enrollment
between 1993 and 1997. Over a twelve year follow-up period, 423 men and 312
women developed diabetes.
Analysis of the data revealed a strong protective effect of high vitamin C levels against diabetes. Participants in the top 20 percent of plasma vitamin C had a 62 percent lower adjusted risk of developing diabetes compared with those in the lowest fifth. Fruit and vegetable intake also emerged as protective. Those whose intake was in the top fifth had a 22 percent lower
diabetes risk than subjects whose intake was lowest.
To the authors’ knowledge, the study is the first to examine the association of plasma vitamin C and the development of diabetes. The findings suggest that suboptimal levels of vitamin C are present before the onset of the disease.
Increased oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and antioxidants, can result in
glucose metabolism disturbances and elevated blood sugar. The authors write that the abundant phytochemicals, minerals
and vitamins, including vitamin C, in fruit and vegetables have antioxidant properties that may be responsible for the protective
effect against diabetes observed in the current study. Additionally, individuals whose fruit and vegetable intake is greater tend
to have lower levels of obesity, which is a strong risk factor for diabetes as well as a promoter of oxidative stress.
“The strong independent association observed in this prospective study, together with biological plausibility, provides
persuasive evidence of a beneficial effect of vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intake on diabetes risk,” the authors conclude.
“Because fruit and vegetables are the main sources of vitamin C, the findings suggest that eating even a small quantity of fruit
and vegetables may be beneficial and that the protection against diabetes increases progressively with the quantity of fruit and
vegetables consumed.”

Several preclinical studies evaluated vitamin C’s role during
mild oxidative stress. The aqueous humor of the eye provides
surrounding tissues with a source of vitamin C. Since animal
studies have shown that glucose inhibits vitamin C uptake,
this protective mechanism may be impaired in diabetes (Corti
A et al 2004).
Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C and E plays an
important role in improving eye health (Peponis V et al 2004).
High vitamin C intake depresses glycation, which has
important implications for slowing diabetes progression and
aging (Krone CA et al 2004).
Vitamin C, through its relationship to sorbitol, also helps
prevent ocular complications in diabetes. Sorbitol, a sugar-like
substance that tends to accumulate in the cells of people with
diabetes, tends to reduce the antioxidant capacity of the eye,
with a number of possible complications. Vitamin C appears
to help reduce sorbitol buildup (Will JC et al 1996).
Vitamin C also has a role in reducing the risk of other diabetic
complications. In one clinical study, vitamin C significantly
increased blood flow and decreased inflammation in patients
with both diabetes and coronary artery disease (Antoniades C
et al 2004). Three studies suggest that vitamin C, along with a
combination of vitamins and minerals (Farvid MS et al 2004),
reduces blood pressure in people with diabetes (Mullan BA et
al 2002) and increases blood vessel elasticity and blood flow
(Mullan BA et al 2004).

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Monday, December 1, 2008

Cell phone danger

Hi, i want to share my toughts about cellphone effects on person's health. I think that the cellphone of course does have effects in human body, whether it's good or bad.  But, nowadays, the effects are still questioned by scientist. It's only matter of time, that the effect will be seen clearly in medical world. It's almost the same with "smoking issue", when people or scientist, years ago, couldn't find any relationship between smoking and lung cancer. But today, almost every people in this world (even the smoker) knows that smoking is dangerous for their health. So when i browse the internet, i have some proofs about this issue...

Recent Research on Brain and Biological Effects of Cell-Phones


  • "Israeli study says regular mobile use increases tumour risk", AFP, December 7, 2007.
    Regular use of mobile telephones increases the risk of developing tumours, a new scientific study by Israeli researchers and published in the American Journal of Epidemiology revealed on Friday. An extract of the report seen by Israel's Yedoit Aharonot newspaper put the risk of developing a parotid gland tumour nearly 50 percent higher for frequent mobile phone users -- more than 22 hours a month. The risk was still higher if users clamped the phone to the same ear, did not use hands-free devices or were in rural areas.

  • "Only ten minutes on a mobile could trigger cancer, scientists believe", Daily Mail, August 30, 2007.
    Mobile phones can take as little as ten minutes to trigger changes in the brain associated with cancer, scientists claimed yesterday. They found even low levels of radiation from handsets interfere with the way brain cells divide. Cell division encourages the growth of tumours.

  • Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours – increased risk associated with use for > 10 years , Hardell, et al , Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;64:626-632, April 4, 2007.
    An association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies in the group with at least 10 years use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Six studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased OR especially for ipsilateral exposure. In a meta-analysis ipsilateral cell phone use gave for acoustic neuroma OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.1-5.3 and for glioma OR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.2-3.4 using a latency period of 10 years or more. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > 10 years give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.

  • "Infertility is only a phone call away", New Zealand Herald, October 25, 2006.
    Mobile phones have been identified as a cause of reduced sperm production in men.   Microwaves emitted by the phones reduce the number, mobility and quality of sperm by almost half in the heaviest users, to the point where some men may become infertile, scientists say.   ...   Scientists from the Reproductive Research Centre at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Ohio, tested the sperm of 364 men being investigated for infertility.   They found that the heaviest users of mobile phones - more than four hours a day - had the lowest sperm counts at 50 million a millilitre and the least healthy sperm, judged by its mobility and the proportion of abnormal sperm.   Sperm counts were highest - 86 million a millilitre - and the sperm healthiest among those men who did not use mobile phones.   All men produce a high proportion of sperm that are abnormal, but in the heaviest mobile users the "normal" sperm fell to 18 per cent compared with 40 per cent in those who never used mobiles.

  • "Cellular phones do affect brain cells", Earthtimes News report, June 27, 2006.
    “Using a cell phone is not innocuous. It has an effect on your brain. Whether that's good or bad, we don't yet know, but it's definitely having an effect. The effects are clear. The increase in excitability is clear and lasts for about an hour. Is that effect harmful or beneficial? I don't know,” he said.

  • "FDA to review wireless-phone safety", Reuters report, April 6, 2006.
    Swedish researchers said last month that the use of cellular phones over a long period of time can raise the risk of brain tumors. ... Those who heavily used wireless phones had a 240 percent increased risk of a cancerous tumor on the side of the head where they used their phone, they reported.

  • "Health may be concern when giving kids cell phones", AP report, March 23, 2005.
    Parents should think twice before giving in to a middle-schooler's demands for a cell phone, some scientists say, because potential long-term health risks remain unclear.

  • "Health study urges caution with cell phones", Reuters report, January 11, 2005.
    Stewart said studies suggesting mobile phones can cause nonmalignant brain tumors, cognitive impairment or DNA damage should not be dismissed, but more research is needed.

  • "Study: Cell phones scramble DNA", Reuters report, December 20, 2004.
    Radio waves from mobile phones harm body cells and damage DNA in laboratory conditions, according to a new study majority-funded by the European Union, researchers said on Monday. ... After being exposed to electromagnetic fields that are typical for mobile phones, the cells showed a significant increase in single and double-strand DNA breaks. The damage could not always be repaired by the cell. DNA carries the genetic material of an organism and its different cells. "There was remaining damage for future generation of cells," said project leader Franz Adlkofer. This means the change had procreated. Mutated cells are seen as a possible cause of cancer.

  • "Are Cellphones a Health Risk?", Fortune Article, October 21, 2004.
    Last week we got one of those periodic reminders that nobody knows whether cellphones may be seriously affecting our health. That worries me, given the ubiquity of these phones in our world today, and the fact that most of you reading this hold one to your head.

  • "Mobile phones may trigger Alzheimer's"BBC report, [PDF], Wednesday, 5 February, 2003, 12:35 GM.
    "Mobile phones damage key brain cells and could trigger the early onset of Alzheimer's disease, a study suggests. Researchers in Sweden have found that radiation from mobile phone handsets damages areas of the brain associated with learning, memory and movement. The study, which was carried out on rats, is the latest twist in the long-running debate over whether mobile phones are a health risk."

  • Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones. Leif G. Salford, Arne E. Brun, Jacob L. Eberhardt, Lars Malmgren, Bertil R.R. Persson. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives 111(7): 881-883, June 2003 (original here).
    "The possible risks of radio-frequent electromagnetic fields for the human body, is a growing concern for the society. We have earlier shown that weak pulsed microwaves give rise to a significant leakage of albumin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Now we have investigated whether a pathological leakage over the BBB might be combined with damage to the neurons. Three groups of each 8 rats were exposed for 2 hours to GSM mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found, and present here for the first time, highly significant (p<0.002)>

  • Effect of GSM mobile phone radiation on blood-brain barrier. Dariusz Leszczynski. 2002. Proceedings of the URSI Meeting, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    "Some animal studies have suggested that mobile phone radiation may cause increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. We have hypothesized (Leszczynski et al. Differentiation, 70, 2002, in press) that the mobile phone radiation-induced increased expression and phosphorylation (activity) of stress protein hsp27 might be the molecular mechanism regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and, possibly, cell apoptosis. Here we present evidence suggesting that mobile phone radiation indeed affects hsp27-dependent cytoplasmic distribution of F-actin and stability of stress fibers. This observation supports our hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced changes in hsp27 expression/activity might eventually lead to increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier."

  • Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Dariusz Leszczynski, Sakari Joenvaara, Jukka Reivinen, Reetta Kuokka. 2002. Differentiation 70:120-129.
    "Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in bloodbrain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects."

    So, let's think about its possible effects. I don't put my cell phone on my pocket, i prefer putting it into my bag, hope this can prevent any bad effects of it. What about u?........

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Saturday, November 29, 2008


today, i'm going to attend infertility simposium in my city. So, i want to post a topic about infertility prevention, hehe, yup i just want to be prepared for the simposium.hope it's helpful.

infertility prevention

As we know, most types of infertility cannot be prevented. Here are some facts from CDC (Centre for Disease Control)

  •  Smoking has been linked to low sperm counts and sluggish sperm movement in men, and an increase in miscarriage in women. 
  • Alcohol (especially binge drinking or chronic abuse), affects the fertility of both men and women trying to conceive either naturally or through infertility treatments. Alcohol is toxic to sperm; it reduces sperm counts, can interfere with sexual performance, disrupt hormone balances and increase the risk of miscarriage. 
  • Other useful methods include meditation, relaxation, moderate physical activity and yoga. 
  • A well-balanced diet includes carbohydrates, protein and fibre. All women should increase folic acid intake (found in green leafy vegetables, fruit, cereals, but also available as supplements) prior to and during the first three months of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Women trying to get pregnant may want to limit caffeine intake to no more than 250 milligrams of caffeine a day (one or two cups of coffee).
  • Excessive excersise can lead to menstrual disorders in women and affect sperm production in men due to the heat build-up around the testicles.
  • Avoid environmental poisons and hazards such as pesticides, lead, heavy metals, toxic chemicals, and ionising radiation. Check with your doctor that any medication or herbal remedies (prescribed or over-the-counter) that you may be taking do not affect fertility. Give up recreational drugs such as marijuana and cocaine as these have been linked to low sperm counts in men and infertility in women.
  •  Limit sex partners and use condoms to reduce the risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). STDs that go undetected and untreated can damage the reproductive system and cause infertility. If you think you may have an STD, get treatment promptly to reduce the risk of damage to your reproductive system.
  • Maintain a body weight close to the ideal for your height to reduce the possibility of hormone imbalances. Being overweight or underweight can affect your hormone production and cause infertility.
and if you want to know some of drugs that are usually prescribed for infertility problem, you can see the list here 

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Friday, November 28, 2008

Secondary Stroke Prevention of Among People With TIA and Stroke

The principle aims in treating stroke are three-fold: (1) to reopen an occluded cerebral artery (thrombolysis), (2) to provide protection against the metabolic cascade caused by ischemic injury leading to neuronal death (neuroprotection), and (3) to prevent recurrent stroke (secondary prevention). Secondary prevention of stroke is the most important of these three since neither thrombolysis nor neuroprotection are currently practical in the majority of patients

Blood Pressure Reduction

Among the 12,000 people who have had previous TIA or stroke (in a population of 1 million people), about 6,000 (50%) have hypertension.Lowering the blood pressure of these 6000 hypertensive TLA/stroke patients by 5-6 mm Hg diastolic and 10-12 mm Hg systolic for two to three years would reduce the annual incidence of stroke in these people from about 7% (n = 420 strokes) to 4.8% (n = 288) (relative risk reduction: 28%, 95% CI: 15%–39%),53 assuming they have the same rate of stroke as individuals who do not have hypertension .This reduction of about 132 strokes per year is 6.6% all (2000) strokes occurring in the population each year. Treating 45 hypertensive TLA/stroke patients for one year (at least) would avoid one stroke each year.

Cigarette Smoking

About 30% (3,600) of TIA/stroke patients are cigarette smokers. Although there have been no randomized trials, observational studies suggest that if all 3,600 TIA/stroke patients who smoke were to stop smoking, the annual number of strokes could be reduced by at least one-third, from about 7% (252) to 4.7% (169), avoiding about 83 strokes each year (4.1% of all strokes). This means that 43 people with TIA/stroke need to stop smoking avoid one stroke of any type each year.

Aids to stop smoking may be required, such as counseling, nicotine gum, or skin patches.

Cholesterol Reduction
TIA/stroke patients, trials in different patient populations suggest that lowering serum cholesterol over a few years years with hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (or “statin” drugs) could reduce the number of strokes by about 24% (95% CI: 8% to 38%), from 7% (336) to 5.3% (255) per year. This reduction, of about 81 strokes, would be 3.4% all (2000) strokes in the population each year. About 59 TIA/stroke patients with hypercholesterolemia would need to be treated effectively avoid one stroke each year.


Antiplatelet Therapy

Antiplatelet therapy is appropriate for about 75% (7875) of people with TIA (2000) or ischemic stroke (8,500) and, if given to all, could reduce the annual incidence of stroke from about 7% (551) to 5.8% (457), thus avoiding about 94 strokes each year (4.7% of all strokes). Treating 83 TIA/ischemic stroke patients for one year (at least) would avoid one each year.

Besides clopidogrel,  no single antiplatelet agent exists that is more effective than aspirin. Aspirin reduces the risk of important vascular events by about 13%  from about 7.0% (551) to 6.0% (472), thus avoiding 79 strokes each year (4.0% of all strokes). Clopidogrel reduces the risk important vascular events by 8.7% (95%CI: 0.3% to 16.5%) compared aspirin, indicating that it would further reduce the risk from 6.0% (472) to 5.5% (433), thus avoiding about 39 more strokes each year, and 118 strokes compared with control.

The combination of dipyridamole and aspirin may also be more effective than aspirin alone. The addition of the second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS-2) to four previous studies that had compared the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole with aspirin alone reveals that the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole is associated with about a 15% relative risk reduction compared with aspirin alone.If these results can be confirmed in ongoing trials (e.g., ESPRIT), and the 7875 people with TIA/stroke take the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole for at least a year, the total number of strokes each year could be reduced from 6.0% (472) to 5.1% (402), thus avoiding about 70 more strokes each year than aspirin alone, and 188 strokes compared with control. One hundred patients need to be treated with aspirin, 66 with clopidogrel, and 53 aspirin plus dipyridamole for at least one year to avoid stroke each year.


Anticoagulant Therapy

Oral anticoagulant therapy (INR 2.0 to 3.0) is indicated for about 20% (2100) of patients with TIA/ischemic stroke who have high-risk sources of embolism from the heart to the brain. Treating these 2100 people with oral anticoagulants would reduce the number of strokes each year by about two-thirds, from 12% (252) to 4% (84),thus avoiding 168 strokes each year (8.4% of all strokes). About 12 people with TIA/stroke and a potential cardiac source of embolism need to be treated with oral anticoagulants for one year prevent one stroke each year.


CE for Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis

CE is indicated for individuals who have had recent symptoms of carotid territory TIA or mild ischemic stroke, severe (>70% in NASCET, >80% ECST) carotid stenosis, and who are fit and willing for surgery. Only about 8% (816) of TIA/ischemic stroke patients meet these criteria.If all 816 appropriate TIA/stroke patients undergo CE, the three-year risk of major stroke or death could be reduced from about 26.5% (8.8% per year) to 14.9% (5.0% year). This is an average absolute risk reduction of 3.8% per year, which equates to about 31 strokes prevented each year (1.5% of all strokes) by performing CE on 816 patients. At least 26 patients would need to be treated with CE to avoid one stroke per year. The number needed to treat prevent one stroke is higher if the perioperative risk of major stroke or death is higher than about 7%.


CE for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis

About 10,000 (1%) people in the population (4% of the aged 50–75 years) have asymptomatic carotid stenosis of 60%–99%.47 If these 10,000 people are accurately identified and undergo CE, the number of strokes could be reduced
from 11% (1100) at five years to 5% (500),thus avoiding up to 600 strokes over five years, or 120 strokes per year (6% of all strokes).

Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting

Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a promising but currently experimental procedure that is in duced from 11% (1100) at five years to 5% trial.

Summary of the Potential Impact of the Different Strategies of Secondary Stroke Prevention for TIA and Stroke Patients on Stroke Prevention in the Population



Aspirin + dipyridamole




Blood pressure-lowering therapy




Smoking cessation




Cholesterol-lowering statin therapy


Carotid endarterectomy


(John W. Norris M.D.-Vladimir Hachinski M.D.)


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